Thursday, 3 July 2014

Personal pronouns

Modern Greek has two different types of personal pronouns:

  • A. the strong type
  • B. the weak type

Personal pronouns are used to denote the three grammatical persons:  

  • 1. the first person, singular and plural
  • 2. the second person, singular and plural
  • 3. the third person, singular and plural, masculine, feminine and neuter

The strong type

Singular - Ενικός Αριθμός

cases    1st 
1st     εγώ      εσύ  αυτόςαυτήαυτό
2nd    μού/μου        σού/σου  αυτούαυτήςαυτού
4th    εμένα/με      εσένα/σε  αυτόναυτήναυτό

Plural - Πληθυντικός Αριθμός

cases   1st 
1st    εμείς        εσείς    αυτοίαυτέςαυτά
2nd    μάς/μας      σάς/σας    αυτώναυτώναυτών
4th    εμάς/μας      εσάς/σας    αυτούςαυτέςαυτά

In MG the personal pronouns are omitted in most of the circumstances. The verb endings clarify that the subject has been put in the first, second or third person singular or plural:

«(εγώ) γράφω», «(εσύ) γράφεις» -  I write, you write

The weak type 

Singular - Ενικός Αριθμός

cases   1st 
1st             τοςτητο
2nd    μου       σου  τουτηςτου
4th    με      σε  τοντη(ν)το

Plural - Πληθυντικός Αριθμός

cases   1st 
1st                τοιτεςτα
2nd    μας      σας    τουςτουςτους
4th    μας      σας    τουςτις/τεςτα

The weak form of the personal pronouns is used more often than the strong form. They have one syllable without accent and are used when nothing has to be emphasized

(For a detailed explanation see the Personal Pronouns link on the right side)

Wednesday, 2 July 2014


The Prepositions in Modern Greek

In Modern Greek the preposition = η προθέση (προ + θέτω = in front of + put) is placed in front of a word, whether in a composite sentence or in an apposition. Prepositions are indeclinable in MG, as well as in English. They are placed in front of nouns and personal pronouns in the 2nd and 4th case, optionally in combination with an article or adjective.

The simple prepositions of one word, originated in the MG from the traditional vernacular language are «από», «για», «με», «σαν», «σε», «χωρίς» or «δίχως» and «ως». They are all used with the 4th case (accusative) and are primary prepositions. The most frequently used prepositions are «από», «για» and «με», but the most used of all prepositions together is «σε».
The prepositions «αντί», «κατά», «μετά», «μέχρι», «παρά» and «πρός», derived from the katharevousa, also belong to the primary prepositions because they are used with the 4th case too.

The most important prepositions are «από» and «σε»

  • the usage of «από»:
  • in expressions of time or place with the meaning of: of, from or since
  • in expressions with the meaning of: along, past and beyond
  • in expressions with the meaning of: by means of (made by)
  • the usage of «σε»:
  • in expressions of a location with the meaning of: on, in or to, at
  • in expressions of a movement with the meaning of: on, in or to

(For a detailed explanation of these prepositions see the preposition links on the right side)

Tuesday, 10 June 2014


In MG the noun has three endings for genders, viz masculine, feminine and neuter. In order to determine the gender of a substantive we may look at the ending of a Greek word, for example:
  • when a word ends on «-ος», «-ας»- or «-ης» it is probably masculine.
  • ending on «-η» and «-α » it is probably feminine.
  • ending on «-ο», «-ι» or «-μα» it is probably neuter.

Fortunately, the substantives in Greek, almost always are accompanied by an article. The article tells us the gender of the substantive. The presence or absence of an article will change the sense of the sentence. The absence of an article is related to the property of the substantive.
The Modern Greek articles are characterized as either definite or indefinite.
The definite article has a singular and plural form

Singular - ενικός αριθμός
Cases Masculine Feminine Neuter
1st case ο η το
2nd case του της του
4th case το(ν) τη(ν) το

Plural - πληθυντικός αριθμός

Cases Masculine Feminine Neuter
1st case οι οι τα
2nd case των των των
4th case τους τις τα
The indefinite article in singular a is used.
(It harmonizes in all genders in form with the number one, but not in meaning.)

Singular - ενικός αριθμός

Cases Masculine Feminine Neuter
1stcase ένας μια, μία ένα
2nd case ενός μιας, μίας ενός
4th case ένα(ν) μια(ν), μία(ν) ένα
  • The indefinite article is used when we describe a person or object with no specific identification.
  • The indefinite article is in singular.
  • Occasionally the stressed «μία» is used for the feminine singular form instead of «μια». These two form only differ in pronunciation, not in meaning. Two examples in which it is used:
  • μια κατάσταση - one situation
  • μόνο μία κατάσταση - only one situation
For extended information about the the article look at: Learning Modern Greek

A few churches in  Naxos:

Wednesday, 4 June 2014


The Greek language is one of the oldest languages in the world and the oldest language in Europe. The language is dating back to the second millennium BC and was hence a source of linguistic loanwords for other European languages. In particular the medical terminology is for a very large part based on ancient Greek medical terms. Close contact between the Greek civilization and other civilizations had their effect with numerous linguistic influences on the Greek language at the same time. When studying Greek history of the last two thousand years we find numerous conquests upon some Greek geographical areas, with the consequence that the Greek language, and in particular the local dialects, are included as such or modified numerous linguistic items to fit in the Greek grammar and the syntax.

The script of the Modern Greek alphabet consists of twenty-four letters whereat a number of characters and punctuation marks are added. The «αλφαβήτα» has vowels and consonants. The seven vowels are  α, ε, η, ι, ο, υ  and ω. The sound of a vowel is short, i.e. there is no difference between long and short vowels. Together with the double vowels αι, ει, οι, ου  and υι.  It means that MG has only five different sounds.

Upper-case Lower-case English name pronunciation Greek name

Α α Alpha a as in father άλφα
Β ß Beta v as in vote βήτα
Γ γ Gamma g as in get [(before vowels α, ο, υ], y as in yet [before vowels ι, ε] γάμα
Δ δ Delta th as in then [but softer than in thin] δέλτα
Ε ε Epsilon e as in set έψιλον
Ζ ζ Zeta z as in zoo ζήτα
Η η Eta ee or i as in feet ήτα
Θ θ Theta th as in thin, [but not as soft as in then] θήτα
Ι ι Iota ee or i as in feet, or y as in yet γιώτα
Κ κ Kappa c as in "cab" [before vowels ι, ε], k as in key [before vowels α, ο, υ] κάπα
Λ λ Lambda l as in leg, [followed by i it turns to a sound that not exist in English] λάμδα
Μ µ Mu m as in map μι
Ν ν Nu n as in not, [followed by i it turns to a sound that not exist in English but it exists in Spanish as niña] νι
Ξ ξ Xi ksi as in wax ξι
Ο ο Omicron o as in box όμικρον
Π π Pi p as in top [close to b] πι
Ρ ρ Rho like a rolled r [a long trill] as in roller ρο
Σ σ, ς * Sigma like s and sh as between soap and shower, the ς is the s at word-ending σίγμα
Τ τ Tau t as in hot, but softer and close to d ταυ
Υ υ Upsilon ee or i as in feet ύψιλον
Φ φ Phi f and ph as in fan and phone φι
Χ χ Chi ch is a sound that does not exist in English, but the Scottish loch comes close or ich in German χι
Ψ ψ Psi ps as in lips and oops ψι
Ω ω Omega o is the same sound as the omikron in the word box, (also as in law)) ωμέγα
(For a detailed explanation, see the Alphabet-link on the right)

A few expressions are:

hello! or  good day!  is said the entire day: «γεια σου» or «γεια σας»
goodday! so long! or goodbye!:  «χαίρετε» is said at coming and going. 
(for more expressions, see the basic phrases on the right) 


Cyclade Island
Naxos (Νάξος), is the largest Greek cyclades island (429 km2) in the Aegean. It is a mountainous island located in the center of Cyclades. It also was the centre of archaic Cycladic culture. The largest town and capital of the island is Chora or Naxos City, with 6,533 inhabitants and a web of steep cobbled alleys, filled with the hubbub of tourism and shopping. Naxos produces olives, grapes, figs, citrus fruit, corn and potatoes. A drive to the inland will bring you to atmospheric villages, ancient sights and interesting sightseeing. You don't need to travel far to find isolated beaches. The beaches on the western side, particularly Mikri Vigla, are ideal for windsurfing and kite surfing, due to the strong winds that blow there in the afternoon. Naxos is famous for the exotic beaches of which Plaka, Agios Prokopios, Orkos and Mikri Vigla are among the most beautiful beaches on the island. The main villages are Filoti, Apiranthos, Vivlos, Agios Arsenios, Koronos and Glinado.

Agia Anna

Agia Anna is a small village located in the western part of Naxosabout 7 kilometers away from Chora. The village has several shops, a bank machine, car and motorbike rentals, restaurants and cozy tavernas. But the village is best known for Agia Anna Beach, one of the most beautiful beaches in the Cyclades!

Naxos Mare

A highly recommended place to stay in Agia Anna is Naxos Mare situated just outside of Agia Anna, about 5 minutes walk from a beautiful beach and some bars and restaurants. This  appartment complex is ideal for relaxing. It is quiet, very very clean, with friendly, helpful and polite people. The appartments are spacious and comfortable, with a pool just outside your  window and from your balcony you can enjoy the sundown sunset.